segunda-feira, 16 de maio de 2011

Simple Present Tense - Presente Simples

* Corresponde ao Presente do Indicativo em Português;
* Sua forma básica é igual a do infinitivo sem a partícula to;
* A 3ª pessoa do singular (he - she - it) recebe s.
a. expressa verdades uuniversais, fatos ciêntificos ou da natureza, algo que acontece no presente e não no momento da fala;
ex: Parallel lines never cross

b. ações repetidas produzidas habitualmente no presente;
ex: George always reads the newspaper in the morning

c.  Ações planejadas para o futuro
ex: Our train leaves in five minutes

Particularidades - Ortografia 
Simple Present - Affirmative Form
1. Os verbos terminados em Sh, ch, o, s, x e z recebem es na terceira pessoa do singular (he,she,it).

exs: brush - brushes                go - goes                 dress - dresses 
        watch - watches               fix - fixes                 buzz - buzzes

2. Nos verberbos terminados em consoante + Y: troca-se o y por i e acrescenta-se es.

exs: try - tries                        fly - flies                  carry - carries

3. Aplicamos s aos verbos terminados em vogal + y e aos demais verbos com diferentes terminações.

exs: say - says                  buy - buys                     play - plays
       live - lives                  leave - leaves                start - starts

4. O verbo to have tem a forma has para a 3ª pessoa do singular.

ex: She has beuatiful pictures in her office.


*As ações habituais são sempre acompanhadas de advérbios de frequência:
always       often                 frequently        every...        twice a...        usually        generally
never         sometimes        seldom             once a...     rarely             regulary       hardly ever

Simple Present - Negative Form

        A forma negativa do Presente Simples é formada com auxiliar do not ou don't (forma abreviada) e o auxiliar does not ou doesn't (forma abreviada) entre o sujeito da oração e o verbo principal no infinitivo sem a partícula to. Utilisa-se apenas o auxiliar does not (doesn't) para a 3ª pessoa do singular (he, she, it) e o verbo principal deve voltar para sua forma de infinitivo perdendo o s ou o es dos verbos terminados em Sh, ch, o, s, x e z) e o ies dos verbos terminados em consoante + y).

Afirmativa: They work in England.
Negativa: They do not(don't) work in England.

Afirmativa 3ª pessoa do Singular: Mary watches TV on Sundays. 
Negativa 3ª pessoa do singular:  Mary does not(doesn't) watch TV on Sundays.

Simple Present - Interrogative form

        A forma interrogativa do Presente Simples é formada com auxiliar do e o auxiliar does  antes do sujeito da oração. Utilisa-se apenas o auxiliar does para a 3ª pessoa do singular (he, she, it) e o verbo principal deve voltar para sua forma de infinitivo perdendo o s ou o es dos verbos terminados em Sh, ch, o, s, x e z) e o ies dos verbos terminados em consoante + y).

Afirmativa: They never drive at night.
Interrogativa: Do They never drive at night?

Afirmativa 3ª pessoa do Singular: Nancy flies to New York.
Negativa 3ª pessoa do singular: Does Nancy fly to New York?

Previous - Emperor Penguin

       Winter arrives in Antarctica in March, when nearly all creatures leave except the emperor penguin, the only animal that spends the winter on Antarctica's ice. they spend their entire lives on Antarctic ice and its winters.

The Changing of the Guard 

        Emperor penguins spend the long winter on the open ice and they breed during this harsh season(unlike most birds, witch breed in the springtime). After a courtship of several weeks females lay a single egg and then leave it behind! Every year, female emperors go to the open sea to get their food. They  travel about 80 kilometers across the frozen surface every winter. Where are the egg eggs, then? At the feet, literally, of the male emperors.

        The male emperors penguin incubates his egg, keeping it warm on his feet covered by his stomach. He just stands there, for about 65 days, through icy temperatures, cruel winds, and blinding storms until the egg hatches. And those dedicated fathers eat nothing that whole time.

        Because of the cruel Antarctic cold, the male penguins stay together, very near each other. The snow falls. The wind blows very, very hard. But penguins just stay there. And survive. Finally after over two months, the females return from the sea, bringing food they regurgitate, to feed the now hatched chicks. The two birds greet each other noisily. Then the male changes places with the female; writers call this the "changing of the guard". The mother takes over care of the chick and the male finally starts the long trip to the open sea and food.

(main source:<> [ accessed August 2008]

breed: (animals) reproduce
courtship: period of sexual attraction between a male and a female animal
harsh: difficult to live in 
hatch: (egg) break open
hatched: newly born chick
incubate: keep the egg warm
regurgitate: bring food up from your stomach back into your mouth
survive: stay alive
take over: assume control of
unlike: different

Exploring other sources

* Happy feet, o pinguim. animação, 2006. warner DVD.
* O pinguim imperador. National Geographic, DVD.
* A marcha dos pinguins. Documentário de Luc Jacquet, 2005  


A. Complete the sentences with the correct words, according to "The changing of the guard".

1. Romeo loves Juliet. Juliet loves Romeo. Romeo and Juliet love ________.

a. together        b. several        c. each other        d. whole        e. entire

2. ________ most birds, penguins are not able to fly.

a. until               b. during         c. across               d. unlike       e. every

3. It's a harsh winter and the water on the lake is ________.

a. frozen              b. warm        c. single                d. blinding     e. open

4. It's 11:58 p.m.. It's ________ midnight.

a. near                 b. icy            c. noisily                d. nearly       e. after
5. When Mr. Smith is on vocation his brother ________ care of the office.

a. takes over        b. feeds         c. leaves               d. travels       e. hatches

B. Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. They show the correct sequence of events in The Changing Of the Guard.

1. Emperor penguins ________ (breed) during the long Antarctic winter.

2. After a courtship of several weeks, the female ________ (lays) one single egg. Then she _______  (leave) it behind. She ________  (go) to the sea to _______ (get) her food.

3. The male ________ (stay) there on the open ice incubating the egg. 

4. After about 65 days, the chick ________ (hatch). A baby penguin is born. His father _______ (keep) the baby warm on his feet until the female ________ (return) from the sea.

5. Finally, the female ________ (return)  from the sea and the two birds ________ (greet) each other  noisily. The female ________ (regurgitate) food and ________ (give) it to the chick.

6. The female ________ (take over) care of the chick and after that the male ________ (go) to the sea to get his food.

C. Complete the sentences with the  Simple Present of the verbs to return - to spend -  to arrive - to leave - to eat - to blow - to stay - to survive - to lay - to fall - to go - to - travel according to The Changing of The Guard.

1. The male penguins ______ together, very near each other.

2. Every year, female emperors ________ to the open sea to  get their food.

3. Those dedicated fathers ________ nothing during that whole time. 

4. Females ________ one single egg and then ________ it behind.

5. Emperor penguin ________ the long Antarctic winter on the open ice.

6. The snow ________. The wind ________ very, very hard.

7. Winter ________ in Antarctica in March.

8. The penguins ________ about 80 kilometers across the frozen surface every winter.

9. The Antarctic winter is harsh, but the penguins ________.

10. Finally, after over two months, the females ________ from the sea.

D. Complete the following sentences using the adverbs "always - never - often - rarely" and the verbs "to arrive - to drink - to cook - to feel - to go - to rain".

1. I ________ ________ before driving. It's against the law.

2. Jane and Greg ________ ________ to the movies. They love the movies.

3. It ________ ________ in the Amazon in the wet season. That's why it is called a rain forest!

4. My sister ________ ________. She hates cooking.

5. That train ________ ________ late. It always arrives on time.

6. Jane and Greg ________ ________ happy when they see each other. They are in love.

The Tree Machine

        Tress are great and beautiful machines, powered by sunlight taking in water from the ground carbon dioxide from the air, converting these materials into food food for their use and ours. (Carl Sagan, in cosmos) 
        Most forms of life on Earth need oxygen. We do not get oxygen from industrial machines. We get it from the tree machine. Trees make the oxygen that we need to take in from the air. Industrial machines cause air pollution. Trees do not pollute the air. On the contrary, they clean it. The industrial machines causes noise pollution. The tree machine does not make any noise. On the contrary, it filters noise.
The tree machine does not need coal, oil, steam, gas, or electricity to work. Its fuel comes from water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide. When a tree dies, it helps new plants. The combination of water, insects, and microorganisms in the soil causes the decomposition of the tree. When a tree dies, it gives nutrients to the soil for other trees to use as fuel. So, the tree does not die, actually. It recycles the its substance for the benefit of all animal and plant life.
 Please remember: the tree is your friend. Do not destroy it.   

actually: Really (emphasis or what is really true) 
benefit: advantage, good
fuel: a substance that produces heat or power when it is burned
on the contrary: the oposite
oxygen: the gas that all animals breathe
powered by: with energy supplied by 
take in: absorb


1. What's the main idea? Choose the sentence that contains the most important idea (and not just details) in the text.

1. The tree helps new plants when it dies.
2. Trees help to fight pollution.
3. The tree works for the benefit of humanity, animals, and plant.
4. Trees make the oxygen that we need to take from the air.

2. Write T (for trees)  or IM (for Industrial Machines) in reference to each of the following sentences, as adequate.
1. (   ) They make a lot of noise.
2. (   ) They don't pollute the air.
3. (   ) They clean the air.
4. (   ) They make the oxygen that we need.
5. (   ) They cause noise and air pollution.
6. (   ) Their fuel comes from water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide.
7. (   ) They don't give us the oxygen that we breathe.
8. (   ) They don't die, actually.
9. (   ) They are powered by sunlight.
10. (   ) They don't recycle their substance for our benefit.

3. Choose from the verbs forms "are - do not pollute - convert - helps - filters - do not get - does not make - does not die - need" to complete the following sentences.

1. Trees ________ great and beautiful machines.
2. Trees ________ water and carbon dioxide into food for their use and ours.
3. Most forms of life on Earth ________ oxygen.
4. Trees ________ the air.
5. We ________ oxygen form industrial machines.
6. On the contrary, it ________ noise.
7. The tree machine ________ any noise.
8. When a tree dies, it ________ new plants... So, the tree ________ , really.

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